Cathy Lozano

In a composition, Cathy analyzes how irony is used to teach a very bitter lesson. Using excellent expression Cathy demonstrates control of structures. She generally uses the preterit past tense with ease: “hizo, invirtió, cambió, tumbó.” She correctly uses the imperfect tense: “no se necesitaba, sufría, parecía.” She complements her use of past tense with the conditional “vendría, enseñaría, habría”, and her use of the pluperfect “había gastado.” Her variety of verb structures continues in using the imperfect subjunctive forms: “para que le hicieran” and then the hypothetical if clause “si hiciera.” She demonstrates the use of idioms: “para mejorar, debió mantenerse un poco más humilde, portarse de esta manera, parecía un perrito faldero.” Her vocabulary is precise: “el problema económico, la mayoría de la población.” She shows an excellent command of Spanish throughout her work.

-Georgette Sullins

La ironía en el cuento “El banquete” por Julio Ramón Ribeyro

Don Fernando hizo de todo para mejorar la apariencia de su casa. Invirtió todo su dinero remodelándola. Contrató a personas para que le hicieran un jardín de estilo japonés. En el interior de la casa cambió alfombras, lámparas y cuadros. Tumbó paredes, pintó y cambió pisos entre otras cosas. Don Fernando se quedó sin plata después de terminar con la decoración de su casa. Para mi gusto, creo que exageró con los gastos que hizo. Entiendo que el presidente vendría a su casa pero no era para tanto.

En mi opinion, creo que don Fernando debió mantenerse un poco más humilde y así enseñaría al presidente que no se necesitaba ser una persona de dinero para ser inteligente. También creo que portarse de esta manera le enseñaría al presidente el problema económico que sufría la mayoría de la población.

En general el cuento, “El banquete,” me gustó mucho porque tiene mucha íronía. Por ejemplo, al principio cuando don Fernando se describe como una persona humilde, se ve después que en realidad no lo es. Lo que sí no me gustó de don Fernando fue que parecía un perrito faldero como decimos en México. Movió cielo, mar y tierra para apantallar al presidente. El hecho de que había gastado todo su dinero me molesta mucho. No creo que ni don Fernando ni su esposa tienen un poquito de sensatez. Si mi esposo hiciera lo mismo que don Fernando, habría divorcio seguro. Lo que me sorprendió fue el final del cuento, que el presidente recibió el golpe de estado.

Al pobre don Fernando le salió el tiro por la culata. Creo que esto fue como el karma, y la íronía del cuento. Ojalá que aprenda su lección y que no le vuelva a pasar lo mismo.

Irony in the Story “The Banquet” by Julio Ramón Ribeyro 

Don Fernando did everything he could to enhance the appearance of his house.  He invested all his money remodeling it.  He contracted people to build a Japanese garden.  In the interior of his house he changed out rugs, lamps and pictures.  He tore down walls, painted and changed out flooring among other things.  Don Fernando found himself without any money after finishing with the decorating.  To my taste, I believe that the money he spent was exaggerated.  I understand that the president of the country was coming to his house, but it wasn’t that big a deal.

In my opinion, I believe that Don Fernando should have behaved with more humility and in this way he would show the president that that one didn’t have to be wealthy in order to be intelligent.  I also believe that behaving in this way would show the president the economic problem that the majority of the population was suffering.

I generally liked the story “El banquete” because it has a lot of irony.  For example, at the beginning when Don Fernando describes himself as a humble person, one sees later that he really isn’t.  What I really didn’t like about Don Fernando was that he seemed to be a lap dog as we say in Mexico.  He moved the sky, sea and earth to court the president with favor.  The fact that he had spent all his money bothers me a lot.  I don’t believe that either Don Fernando or his wife had a bit of sense.  If my husband did the same as Don Fernando, there would have been a divorce for sure.  What surprised me was the end of the story, that the president experienced a government coup.

Poor Don Fernando suffered a blow.  I think this was karma and the irony of the story.  I hope he learns his lesson and that the same thing doesn’t happen again to him.

-Georgette Sullins  (trans.)

 

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Isabela Delclós

SPANISH 2312: INTERMEDIATE SPANISH II

In a journal entry reflecting on Spanish culture, Isabela remembers several architectural and sculptural works by Anton Gaudi. Her memories are grounded in a visit she made to Spain when she was twelve years old. She vividly remembers “la Sagrada Familia, el parque Guell, el geco y tambien la Casa Battlo.” Her composition utilizes the present and pluperfect tenses appropriately: “es, fui, podia, habia visto.” The reader feels her excitement as she uses argumentatives (“obras hermosisimas”), a variety of adjectives (“unico, maravillosas, inolvidable”) and exclamations (“Fue increible!”) He personal response recalling memories of her trip to Barcelona exemplifies her cultural sensitivity, enthusiasm for Gaudi’s work and command of Spanish.

– Georgette Sullins

Recuerdos de  España: Antoni Gaudí

Antoni Gaudí fue un arquitecto muy famoso de Reus, España. Gaudí creó muchos edificios, parques, y obras hermosísimas. Por eso, Gaudí es uno de mis artistas favoritos. Su estilo de arte es único. No hay otro artista como Gaudí. A mi parecer, sus obras son más que bellas, son maravillosas.

Cuando fui a España, visité la Sagrada Familia, el parque Güell, y también la Casa Batllo. ¡Fue una experiencia inolvidable! Mi obra favorita de Gaudí es su parque Güell. Me encantó el geco que hizo y también me encantaron las columnas que él creó. Recuerdo que yo caminé entre las columnas del parque y pude ver la belleza de su obra con mis propios ojos. ¡Fue increíble!

El parque Güell es muy diferente de sus otras obras. El parque Güell, en mi opinión, tiene más colores vibrantes y más “vida” en comparación a sus otras obras. Pero también me gustó la Sagrada familia mucho. Cuando entré a la Sagrada familia, me quedé muy sorprendida. ¡Era bonitísima! No podía creer lo que estaba viendo. El genio de Gaudí era evidente en todo lo que vi. Tenía doce años cuando fui a España, y ya había visto varias cosas bonitas a lo largo de mis años de viajes, pero nunca había visto nada tan detallado e intricado como ésta. Tuve la oportunidad de subir unas escaleras curvas que iban casi a la cima del edificio. Es algo que recordaré por el resto de mi vida.

 

Antoni Gaudí was a famous architect from Reus, Spain.  Gaudí created many buildings, parks and beautiful works.  For that reason, Gaudí is one of my favorite artists.  His style of art is unique.  There is no other artist like Gaudí.  In my opinion, his works are more than beautiful, they are marvelous.

When I went to Spain, I visited the Sagrada Familia, the Güel Park, and also the Batllo house.  It was an unforgettable experience.  My favorite work by Gaudí is his Güel Park.  I loved the gecko that he made and I also loved the columns that he created.  I remember that I walked among the columns of the park and I could see the beauty of his work with my own eyes.  It was incredible.

Güel Park is very different from his other works.  Guell Park in my opinion has more vibrant colors and more life in comparison to his other works.  But I also liked the Sagrada Familia a lot.  When I entered the Sagrada Familia, I was very surprised.  It was so pretty!  I couldn’t believe what I was seeing.  The genius of Gaudí was evident in everything I saw.  I was twelve years old when I went to Spain and I had already seen several beautiful things in my years of travel, but I had never seen anything so detailed and intricate as this.  I had the opportunity of climbing the curved staircase that went almost to the top of the building.  It is something that I will remember for the rest of my life.

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Michelle Sklar

MUSIC 1310: AMERICAN MUSIC
In MUSI 1310 /American Music, Ms. Sklar immediately captures us with a stimulating Power Point of a quintessentially American musician, Antoine “Fats” Domino. She effectively presents a visual narrative of Domino’s childhood, influences, social barriers, personal struggles and triumphs.  The photographs and graphics selected send us soaring in a time machine into the life and times of one of the most influential periods in music history.  Throughout this ride, you can “hear” the sounds of American popular music in their infancy and begin to reflect on current genres and the influence “Fats” Domino has had in their very creation. Ms. Sklar revives this musical personality making him relevant and very much alive in our modern world. This project can stand-alone or be accompanied with a musical soundtrack.

– Amanda Waites

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Flavia Brandao

ITALIAN 1412: BEGINNING ITALIAN II

The assignment for Italian 1412 was to watch the film, The Bicycle Thief, in class, listen to a lecture on the history of Italian Neo-realism, and then write a review that demonstrated mastery of film vocabulary, ability to summarize the plot, and ability to analyze the film’s central themes, using present and past tenses. In addition, the student had to place the film in the context of the director’s work and the history of Neo-realism, based on classroom lectures. Flavia Brandao met all of the requirements of the assignment in a cogent and grammatically-correct review.

– Romana Cortese

Flavia Brandao
Italian 1412
Dr. Cortese
4 Maggio, 2016

Recensione di un film: Ladri di biciclette1

Titolo del film: Ladri di biciclette                           1

Nome del regista: Vittorio De Sica

Personaggi/Interpreti:
Antonio……… Lamberto Maggiorani
Bruno………… Enzo Staiola
Maria………… Lianella Carell
Il ladro………. VIttorio Antonucci
Il mendicante…Giulio Chiari

 

flaviabrandao_01Musiche del Maestro Cicognini
Casa produttrice: P.D.S.
Anno: 1948
Durata: 93 minuti
Genere del Film: Neo-realista – drammatico
Ambiente: Roma del dopoguerra
Luogo: Roma vicino a Porta Portese

 

 

La trama:

 

La città è Roma, nel 1948, dopo la seconda guerra mondiale. La condizione economica e morale d’Italia era molto difficile. Le classi povere soffrono per ricominciare la vita.

 

 

flaviabrandao_02Hanno molti sentimenti contemporaneamente: speranza, accettazione, frustrazione, povertà, e disperazione.

 

In questo ambiente,  Antonio e Maria, i genitori di Bruno che è un piccolo bambino, cercano di cominciare una nuova vita. Antonio ha appena iniziato un nuovo lavoro quando la sua bicicletta gli viene rubata. Lui dipendeva su quella bicicletta per lavorare.

 

 

 

 

Lui inizia una ricerca per recuperare la sua bicicletta. Bruno è stato sempre al suo fianco ed è il testimone di tutto che suo padre ha fatto per cercare quella bicicletta che era la condizione del suo lavoro. Antonio si sente impotente e disperato dopo vari tentativi frustrati di giustizia. È commuovente vedere un bambino così piccolo di fronte la disperazione di suo padre.

 

Antonio, il protagonista di questa storia, è interpretato da Lamberto Maggiorani, che come gli altri attori non era professionista. Lui era un operaio in una fabbrica romana quando De Sica lo ha scelto per fare l’attore nel film. Il film è girato in maggior parte esternamente per le strade di Roma. I personaggi sono poveri con i vestiti vecchi e rotti.

 

Il regista è Vittorio De Sica, che è considerato uno dei padri del neorealismo. Il neorealismo era una nuova forma di fare cinema tra il 1945 e il 1956.  Prima di questo film, De Sica ha diretto altri film dello stesso genere che hanno tracciato la dura realtà dopo la seconda guerra mondiale, affrontando le questioni sociali e morali nel paese distrutto.

 

flaviabrandao_03Mostrare all’Italia e al mondo una visione del vero dramma che era gran parte della società dopo la guerra era molto importante per risvegliare un sentimento di solidarietà e d’unità. Questo era necessario per la ricostruzione del paese e la sua società con una nuova forma di pensare.

 

Il film, I ladri di biciclette, è considerato un classico del cinema italiano ed è nella lista dei 100 migliori film del cinema mondiale. E in quarta posizione. Nel 1949 ha ricevuto un Oscar per il miglior film straniero.

 

Note

 

1 Ladri di Biciclette. FilmTV. http://www.filmtv.it/film/3831/ladri-di-biciclette/. 4 May 2016.

 

2 Ladri di Biciclette. Wikipedia. https://it.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladri_di_biciclette. 4 May

 

2016.

 

3 Ladri di Biciclette. Wikipedia. https://it.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladri_di_biciclette. 4 May

 

2016.

 

 

 

 

 

Translation: Romana Cortese, Ph. D.

 

Movie Review

 

Title: The Bicycle Thief

 

Director: Vittorio de Sica

 

Actors/Characters

Antonio. . . . . . . .Lamberto Mattiorani

Bruno . . . . . . . . Enzo Scaiola

Maria . . . . . . . . Lianella Carell

Thief . . . . . . . .  Vittorio Antonucci

Beggar. . . . . . . Giulio Chiari

 

Music of Maestro Cicognini

Producer: P.D.S.

Year: 1948

Length: 93 minutes

Genre: Neo-realism

Time: Rome after W. W. II

Place: Rome, near Porta Portese

 

Plot

 

We’re in Rome after World War II. The economic and moral situation in Italy was very difficult. The poor suffered while trying to start life anew. They had mixed feelings about their situation: hope, acceptance, frustration, poverty, and desperation. Antonio and Maria are Bruno’s parents. He is a little boy. They are trying to build a new life. Antonio just started a new job when his bicycle gets stolen. He depended on that bicycle for work. He starts looking for his bike. Bruno was always by his side and sees everything that his father does to look for that bicycle, which the job required in order to  continue working. Antonio feels impotent and desperate after many frustrated attempts to get justice. It’s moving to watch a boy so small who has to witness his father’s desperation.

 

Antonio, the protagonist of this story, is played by Lamberto Maggiorani who, like the other actors, was not a professional actor. He was a laborer in a Roman factory when De Sica picked him to act in the film. The film is shot mainly outside, in the streets of Rome. The characters are poor and wear torn clothing.

 

The director, Vittorio de Sica, is considered one of the fathers of neorealism, which was a new film genre between 1945 and 1956. Before this film, De Sica directed other movies of the same genre, movies that traced the hardships of the period after World War II and confronted the social and moral questions of a nation in ruin. It was important to show Italy and the world a view of the reality that affected a large segment of the population after World War II in order to awaken a feeling of solidarity and unity. This was needed for the reconstruction of the country and society, particularly as it required a new way of thinking.

 

The Bicycle Thief is considered one of the classics of Italian cinema and is included in the list of the world’s 100 best movies. It is fourth on this list. In 1949, it received an Oscar for best foreign film.

 

Notes

 

1 Ladri di Biciclette. FilmTV. http://www.filmtv.it/film/3831/ladri-di-biciclette/. 4 May 2016.

 

2 Ladri di Biciclette. Wikipedia. https://it.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladri_di_biciclette. 4 May

2016.

 

3 Ladri di Biciclette. Wikipedia. https://it.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ladri_di_biciclette. 4 May

2016.

 

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Virginia Dray

SCWK 2331: ABNORMAL BEHAVIOR

A mental health diagnostic report represents a complex collection of information. The clinician must use oral, written, and observational skills to critically analyze the client’s story while gathering information. Human Services student Virginia Dray, skillfully manages these complex pieces as she narrates the diagnostic picture of the fictional client, Ashley Brandt and her probable Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorder (DSM-5) diagnosis. She writes in a professional tone that is respectful, nonjudgmental, and objective. Her case study documents significant client comments and uses professional terminology throughout the report. Virginia’s well-written case study utilizes rich detail to structure and substantiate her client’s mental health diagnosis.

– Cynthia Trumbo

Case Study: Ashley Brandt
Name: Ashley S. Brandt
Agency # 58546
SOCIAL HISTORY
Date: 11/23/15

Diagnostic Case Study of Ashley Brandt

PRESENTING PROBLEM:

      Ashley is a 33-year-old white female. She is the divorced mother of two daughters, ages eleven and eight. She was referred to this facility by Memorial Herman Emergency Room after an intentional sedative overdose, which she admits was a suicide attempt.

Ashley says she feels hopeless and can’t sleep at night because of feelings of guilt, which causes her to be sleepy and have no energy during the day. She thinks about committing suicide often but has never attempted until now. Ashley says that she is irritable with her daughters, so much so that she avoids spending time with them by locking herself in her bedroom. Her daughters are frightened by her sudden mood swings. Ashley feels as though she has no control over her words or actions when she’s angry and is embarrassed that she can’t bring herself to apologize afterwards. She copes by cutting her legs “where no one can see.” She also breaks things and drives erratically when angry. Ashley says that she would like to “be happy and be a better mother,” as well as learning to control her anger.
Ashley is only able to keep a few friends at a time and makes new friends every few years. Although she sometimes knows that it is unrealistic, she constantly feels as though all of her friends have ill feelings toward her. She has had many intense, short-lived friendships and her few long-term, valued friendships are often discontinued over minor disputes, after which she immediately regrets her decision or holds a grudge for years. Ashley says that her friends eventually grow tired of her constant need for help. Her suicide attempt stemmed from one friend telling her, “if you want to die, you should just kill yourself.”

FAMILY OF ORIGIN:
Ashley was an only child, raised by both natural parents. She was close to her maternal grandparents before they passed away recently, but says that her paternal grandmother is cold toward her. She was also close to one cousin as a child, but they had a disagreement as teenagers and have only spoken at family functions since then.
Ashley’s father works as an insurance claim investigator and her mother is a schoolteacher. Ashley was a “spoiled” child who was doted on and “always had the best of everything.” She laments that she has not received her father’s praise or affection since childhood. Ashley’s parents divorced and later reconciled when she was in junior high school. She says this was the most traumatic event of her life, if not the defining moment, and that she spent most of her eighth grade year in the school counselor’s office.

      Ashley says that her mother is passive-aggressive she “never knows when [her] mother is angry.” Although her mother is sometimes depressed, she has little understanding of mental health issues. Ashley says that her mother is the “strongest person [she] knows.” Ashley says that her father is “full of himself,” has a “horrible temper,” and is sometimes overly critical of her mother, although he adamantly denies the possibility of having a mood disorder and feels no empathy for those who do. During a family counseling session when Ashley was fifteen, her father said, “We have a dysfunctional daughter, not a dysfunctional family.” At a later session, the therapist mused that while Ashley “identifies with her father, she sympathizes with her mother.”
As a child, Ashley was bullied because she was “shy and weird.” Her family moved frequently while she was in grade school and she says that she always felt like an outsider. Ashley had very few friends until high school when she joined the “goth crowd.” She began smoking cigarettes at age thirteen, drinking alcohol at fifteen, and became promiscuous at sixteen. Ashley had one serious boyfriend in high school. They dated for one year and planned to marry after graduation, but he abruptly left her for another girl after senior prom

MARRIAGE AND SIGNIFICANT RELATIONSHIPS:

      Ashley was married to Derek, the father of her daughters, soon after high school graduation. They had only been together for six months, but they were pressured by family members because of an unplanned pregnancy. Their marital discord began immediately, as Derek would stay out all night drinking and “hustling pool,” leaving her home alone and pregnant. She had hoped his behavior would improve when the baby arrived, but it only escalated and Derek eventually began using narcotics. Ashley reports being angry and depressed during both pregnancies. She once scratched Derek’s truck with a key while he was sleeping off a hangover and she was battling morning sickness. Ashley threatened to park her car on the railroad tracks with both children inside shortly after her second daughter was born. She says that she often resents her children for “ruining [her] life.”
While not working as a sous chef or partying with friends, Derek spent his time at home sleeping, leaving Ashley to care for their children by herself. However, he attempted to appear as an attentive father when friends or family were present. Derek had countless affairs and verbally berated her even though she was “an amazing wife.” Shortly after their first child’s birth, Derek gestured toward Ashley’s slender friend and asked, “Why can’t you look like her?” Ashley says that she blamed herself for his verbal abuse and once punished herself by cutting off her hair in clumps. After ten years of marriage and several separations, they were divorced. She still refers to him as “the love of [her] life.”
Ashley encouraged Derek to visit the children after their divorce, but he moved to another state, telling everyone who would listen that she refused to let him or his family contact the children. She displayed a recent text message from Derek where he claimed to be, “very happy with a beautiful woman.” The message continued, “You’re a joke. Nobody has one good thing to say about you. You’re a loser who everyone thinks is the most disgusting person they never want to see again. Nobody likes you at all.”

      Since her divorce three years ago, Ashley has had a few short relationships that have all followed a similar pattern. She says that she falls in love easily, but loses interest “as soon as they get serious.” After that, she sabotages the relationship, then she is “devastated” and harbors resentment toward the other partner. She has also had numerous one-night stands, including one with a married man.

CURRENT LIVING ARRANGEMENTS:
      Ashley and her children live with her parents in their home, located in the suburbs of north Houston. Her parents provide financially and take care of her children. She has never lived alone and doesn’t feel capable of supporting her children or running a household on her own. Ashley feels as though her family thinks she chooses to continue her behavior. She feels “useless” and “in the way” at home, as though she “doesn’t belong there.” Her mother often repeats the phrase, “If you’d just eat right and exercise, everything would be okay.” Ashley would like to return to her role as her daughters’ primary caregiver.

EMPLOYMENT AND EDUCATION HISTORY:
      Ashley works in the stockroom of a department store. She has established a pattern of working hard, then quitting a job impulsively because of her temper. She often feels undervalued at work, but acknowledges that she is overly sensitive to criticism. Her longest period of continued employment is one year.
A similar pattern has developed with Ashley’s college education, wherein she does well in her classes, then drops them before completion because she changes her major, although she is “definitely smart enough to graduate.”
Ashley took honors level courses in high school. She was a reporter for the school newspaper and aspired to be a professional journalist. She won an award for writing and started a literary magazine with friends.

MEDICAL HISTORY:

      Ashley has an insignificant medical history. She was hospitalized as an infant for pneumonia. Both of her pregnancies were normal. Ashley drinks alcohol once a week or less, and smokes cigarettes occasionally. Her weight fluctuates because she skips meals or overeats when depressed, depending on the severity. She blames her constant sense of fatigue for her caffeine addiction.

      Ashley’s mother told her that her problems began at age fifteen. She was hospitalized “far away from home” at age seventeen when her mother became “desperate” to “cure” her mood swings. She has been diagnosed with various forms of depression over the past sixteen years. Her most recent diagnosis is Bipolar Disorder II, although she denies ever having a manic episode. She has been prescribed antidepressants and mood stabilizers on several occasions, which she reported as effectively treating her symptoms, but she quit taking them each time she felt better.
LEGAL HISTORY:

Ashley completed one year of probation after she lost her temper and assaulted Derek. At one point, she almost lost her driver’s license for excessive speeding tickets. No other legal history exists.

SOCIAL AND RECREATIONAL INTERESTS:

      Ashley’s only social activity is occasional cocktails with friends. She would like to learn to play guitar or do arts and crafts projects, but she says she lacks the “motivation or energy.” In the past, she enjoyed photography, writing poetry, and attending concerts. She says she would like to do “artsy things” with her daughters, such as, “experiencing foreign foods and taking them to museums and festivals.”

IMPRESSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS:

      Ashley is well-mannered, intelligent, and articulate. She was dressed in a baggy t-shirt and sweat pants; her hair wasn’t brushed. During the interview, she was calm, but sad and cried throughout, especially when talking about her children. Ashley alternated between sadness and anger when she was referring to her ex-husband, Derek. She seems to have good insight into her symptoms.
Ashley’s scores on the World Health Organization Disability Assessment Schedule, Version 2.0, (WHODAS 2.0), showed “moderate difficulty” in “getting along with others” and “participation in society” with an overall “mild disability” (APA, 2013, pp. 747-748). On the Level One Cross Cutting, she tested as “severe” in the areas of depression, suicidal ideation, personality function, and substance use, and “moderate” in anger (APA, 2013, pp. 738-739). The next step is to complete the Level 2 Cross-Cutting Symptom Measures for depression and anger.
My recommendation is a psychiatric evaluation to resume her antidepressant and mood stabilizer medications, as well as individual psychotherapy sessions with a specialized clinician twice weekly, and a support group or group therapy. I also highly recommend she educate herself about her disorder and have supplied her with informational literature. Ashley is agreeable with my recommendations and appears hopeful.

Primary Diagnosis: 301.83 Borderline Personality Disorder, Secondary Diagnoses: 300.4 Persistent Depressive Disorder (Dysthymia), severe, early onset, with persistent major depressive episode, Tertiary Diagnoses: V15.42 Personal History (Past History) of Spouse or Partner Psychological Abuse, V15.59 Personal History of Self-Harm, V62.5 Conviction without Prison

Reference
American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of             mental health disorders, (5th ed.). Arlington, VA: American Psychiatric

               Association.

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Magdalena Berg

DAAC 2354: DYNAMICS OF GROUP COUNSELING

Many adolescent mothers fail to complete their high school or college diploma. In response to their academic challenges, Human Services student Magdalena Berg, offers a transformative solution through an academically-based support group. Her central thesis is well-developed and follows a logical structure. She identifies problem areas and structures group sessions using a proven, therapeutic approach based on Reality Therapy by William Glasser. Magdalena identifies practical, problem-solving skills and a teaching methodology that would appeal to her students. Her well-written paper shows how theory and application can be used effectively.

– Cynthia Trumbo

Adolescent Motherhood and Academic Success

The purpose of this educational/support group is to help pregnant high school girls rediscover the value of education and encourage them to pursue further education once they graduate from high school. Studies show that girls having a baby as teenagers are more likely to face poverty, inadequate education, and engage in risky behavior often leading to repeated teen pregnancies and substance abuse. Poor education leads to fewer employment opportunities, lower earnings throughout their lives, and dependence on welfare (Akella & Jordan, 2011). Many students come from environments where teenage pregnancy is an accepted social norm causing minimal disruption in their lives. With ample government assistance available to them many see dropping out as a convenient option. It is easier for them to raise a baby than to finish school.

Since the target of this group is school success rather than addressing various aspects of pregnancy the group will focus on goal setting with the emphasis of helping the girls “grasp the correlation between the academic success and attainment of life goals” (Capuzzi, 2003, p.101).

Recent studies reaffirm that goal setting activities enhance adolescent brain development and in case management intervention for pregnant adolescents’, goal setting on various levels proved to be an effective method of addressing and encouraging positive life changes (Scarborough, Lewis & Kulkarni, 2010). Members of the group will work on setting personal, attainable, short and long-term goals.

Reality Therapy, a method of counseling created and developed by William Glasser (1965) provides a framework for understanding human behavior and motivation. It is easy to understand and helpful in relating the importance of goal setting and accepting responsibility for one’s actions (Corey, 2008). Individuals have options to choose from so the power to change a situation lies within them. WDEP model based on the theory will help students identify and evaluate their goals, create a plan to attain them, as well as identify their strengths and areas in which they are already succeeding. The goal is for them to emerge as confident young women taking charge of their future (Capuzzi, 2003).

RIGHTS AND EXPECTATIONS OF MEMBERS

This is a closed group consisting of six to ten members. The group will meet once a week for seven weeks. The sessions will last 1.5 hours. The proposed basic rules include attendance, participation in activities, respect for fellow members and confidentiality. Members have the right to pass on an exercise if they so choose. Upon entering the room all phones will be silenced and left in a designated area to minimize interruptions. Each teen will need to turn in a signed consent form from their parents prior to the first session.

SESSIONS OUTLINE

Each session will include group activities, discussion, and time for personal reflection. Members will be given handouts on the various topics and ideas being discussed. Homework questions will help set the tone for the next session. Members will be given five minutes of journaling time to write their comments, complains, and questions at the end of session. Journals will be left for the leader to read after each session.

SESSION 1

Purpose: The purpose of the initial meeting is for members to get to know each other, as well as to discuss the purpose and norms of the group.

Theme: “Getting to know you”

Activity: “My Favorite Things” Toss a miniature soccer ball with a general question on each section. The person catching the ball answers the question from the top section: What is your favorite board game/fast food restaurant/season? Give each member a chance to answer a few questions. The questions are simple, the point is for the members to warm up to each other.

Discussion: Basic group rules: attendance, respect, participation, confidentiality, no phones or electronic devices during meetings. Each member will receive a journal for reactions/comments, and a binder for handouts. Explain the purpose of journals and encourage honestly.

Homework: Survey about group expectations.

SESSION 2

Purpose: The purpose of the second meeting is to discuss various environments the members come from and the influence of family and social groups on their decision making process.

Theme: “My world”

Activity: Art – draw your family tree.

Discussion: Who are the most important people in your life? What values are important to you? How does it impact your behavior? How closely do you follow in the footsteps of your parents and/or siblings? Do you base your decisions on what you want, or what others expect from you?

Homework: If I could change one thing about me what would it be?

SESSION 3

Purpose: Introduce The Five Basic Needs: Survival, Love & Belonging, Freedom, Power and Fun. Needs motivate your behavior. How do you meet your needs?

Theme: “My needs”

Activity: My needs poster – a wall chart with five columns for each of the basic needs. All the members take turns writing down their needs, or at least one need, in appropriate spaces.

Activity: Work with a partner. Pick one of the five needs. Discuss how education/lack of it plays a role in fulfilling that particular need? How much does it affect the outcome today? How much do you think it will affect it five, ten, or twenty years from now?

Discussion: Everyone shares their conclusions with the group. During discussion the leader will emphasize how decisions students make today about school have a detrimental impact on their future well-being, as well as that of their child. Leader will ask for volunteers to share answers to the homework questions. Why would you change that particular thing?

Homework: When you were little who did you want to be when you grow up?

SESSION 4

Purpose: The purpose of this session is to discuss Choice Theory. What do you want? How do you get it? How do you get to where you want to be?

Theme: “Making better choices”

Activity: Rounds – Finish the sentence. Everyone picks a sentence stem, “I’m happiest when…” “I worry about…” Leader will encourage members to share deeper things if they are comfortable.

Discussion: How do you get to where you want to be? The leader will introduce Choice Theory and WDEP model (Want/Desire/Evaluate/Plan). A volunteer will give an example of a school related situation and try to apply WDEP concept to it. What is the want in the example, what can be done to fulfill the want? Is the course of action chosen helpful in reaching the goal?

Homework questions from the last meeting. Does pregnancy have a big impact on how you think about your future? Do you feel limited in your options now that you are going to be a mother?

Homework: WDEP Model handout: Each student will pick one educational goal and write them out in a form of Want/Desire/Evaluate/Plan to the best of their ability.

SESSION 5

Purpose: The purpose of this meeting is to identify attainable goals and a workable plan to reach them. How do you break up long-term goals into short-term manageable steps? Introduce SMART goal model and the basics of goal setting, creating goals that are realistic, attainable and time specific. The leader will remind everyone that there is only one session left before the closing meeting.

Theme: “I am SMART”

Activity: Everyone will take out their WDEP homework sheet. Everyone will receive a set of five SMART cards Specific/Measurable/Attainable/Realistic/Timely. Members will take a few minutes to think about the educational goal on their worksheet. Is the goal specific – if so place “Specific” card down on the goal. Is the goal realistic? Are the students able to put all the cards down? What cards are left in their hands?

Discussion: Realistic versus unrealistic. Goals should be relevant to your situation. The leader will discourage students from setting goals that are too easy and do not require any work on their part. The easiest solution is not always the best. Change takes time.

Homework: Only one session left before closing of the group. How do you feel about it? Members may be concerned, worried, or anxious about the group ending. This is their chance to express their issues and mention anything else they would like to see covered during a session.

SESSION 6

Purpose: The purpose of this session is to talk about overcoming obstacles. Difficulties are a part of life. Some things are simply outside of our control. The only thing we can control is our behavior. How do you react to problems?

Theme: “I can do it”

Activity: Round – one word – “When things don’t go according to my plan I….”

Discussion: The leader will review WDEP model and discuss adjusting goals and adapting them to current situation. We may not always be able to make as much progress as we would like to. Problems can change the way we go about meeting goals, but not the goals themselves.

Activity: Positive mirror – members get a sheet of cardstock with a picture of their face in the middle. The leader will distribute a variety of speech bubbles with positive self-talk intended to build self-esteem. Members pick speech bubbles they find personally helpful and encouraging and glue them as a frame around their picture.

Homework: Members will write on index cards what they liked most about other members, what they learned from them and/or what they admire them for, and name at least one quality/strength that person has. Each member will write one card for each of the other members in the group.

SESSION 7

Purpose: Time for celebration. The girls will celebrate the completion of their group with cupcakes and milkshakes, share what they learned in the group and say goodbye to their fellow group members.

Theme: “Celebrate Success”

Activity: First Round – what did I learn in the group. How am I going to use it in the future? How is it going to help me fill my needs and propel me forward?

Second round – The leader will distribute the cards members have written about each other. Everyone will pick one card and read out loud what was said about them.

Discussion: How does it feel to be able to learn what your peers think about you? Did anyone mention a strength you were not aware you had? Did more than one person name the same quality about you?

Activity: Cupcakes and celebration time!

Closing: Final evaluation of the group and the leader. The leader will remind the members to contact their current school counselors if they feel they need continued assistance with their academic progress.  Each member will leave the meeting with a folder of handouts from all the previous sessions to help them review techniques learned during the group.

CONCLUSION

This group has been designed for pregnant high school girls with the purpose of helping them rediscover the importance of education and teach them how to set attainable educational goals based on the framework of Reality Therapy and WDEP model. Topics addressed during the group included: impact of good education on success in life, self-esteem, and overcoming obstacles. Effective goal setting is an important developmental exercise and the open design of WDEP makes is applicable for various situations and individuals. Although this group focuses on academic success the universal skills learned in the group can be utilized by anyone seeking to engage in goal-setting and achievement process.

 

References

Akella, D. Jordan, M. (2015). Impact of social and cultural factors on teen pregnancy. Journal of health disparities research and practice. 8(1), pp.41-62.

Capuzzi, D. (2003). Approaches to group work: a handbook for practitioners. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Merrill/Prentice Hall.

Corey, G. (2008). Theory & practice of group counseling. Belmont (7th ed.). CA: Brooks/Cole, Cengage Learning.

Gladding, S. T. (2003). Group Work: A Counseling Specialty (4th ed., 113, 469-472). Upper Saddle River, New Jersey: Pearson Education.

Glasser, William (1965). Reality therapy. A new approach to psychiatry. New York: Harper & Row.

Jacobs, E., Masson, B., Harvill, R., & Schimmel, C. (2012) Group Counseling: Strategies and Skills, Seventh Edition. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning.

Scarborough, M. K., Lewis, C. M., & Kulkarni, S. (2010). Enhancing adolescent brain development through goal-setting activities. Social Work, 55(3), 276–278.

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Cindy Allsbrooks

DAAC 2354: DYNAMICS OF GROUP COUNSELING

Human Services student Cindy Allsbrooks offers a well-written support group proposal designed for parents whose lives have been shattered by the death of their child. As a parent who survived this painful experience, she offers additional insight to advance the structure and implementation of the group. Her methodically outlined session objectives and activities clearly address the fundamental elements of a grief support group with a research-based approach. Her proposal is written to engage readers who may not have a background in the counseling field.

– Cynthia Trumbo

 

Grief Group – Parents Who Lost Children

The purpose of this support group is to create a safe and nurturing environment where members can talk about their loss, share their thoughts and fears, and understand that they are not alone on their journey. The group will be a source of education as well. Learning the stages of grief can help bereaved parents to understand their feelings of anxiety and the sadness that so often leads to depression and despair. The members of this group will have the opportunity to share their own personal stories and discuss ways they can help each other through the healing process. The focus will be on emotional recovery. The group will consist of parents only, with a recommendation that any surviving children attend a siblings group.

Methodology

Grief Group – Parents Who Lost Children (GGPWLC) will meet once a month at the local community club house which can accommodate up to seventy-five people. However, it is unlikely that there will ever be more than twenty or so at any one meeting. The meetings will be held the first and third Thursdays of every month from 6:30 p.m. to 8:30 p.m.  GGPWLC will meet for an unlimited time and as long as there are members who show up.

Often a bereaved parent will avoid seeking counseling or a grief support group because coping with loss is a deeply personal and singular experience. (The Five Stages of Grief, 2014) When a parent cannot reach out, a family member might attend meetings to learn how they can help their loved one in the grief process. The location of a grief group could factor in to whether a person will attend the meetings. It might be too difficult for a parent who lost a child after a lengthy hospital stay to go back to a hospital for a grief group. An individual who is not religious, or even lost their faith after a child’s death, may avoid going to a church.

The rationale for this type of group is that we all need a support system as we move through the grief journey.  Friends and family are important but may not be a good resource because they may not fully understand how to help if they have not experienced this type of loss. A grief group can provide unconditional support in a culture that is uncomfortable talking about loss, especially when it comes to the loss of a child. (Benefits of Grief Support Group, 2010) In a grief support group there seems to be an instant connection in a non-elite club which no one would ever choose to be a part of.

Group Goals

1) To teach members coping skills which can lead to hope and finding a new normal., 2) To help members understand how children and other family members may react to loss., 3) To provide literature on the topics of grief (the loss of a child) and other resources for the bereaved parent., 4) To provide support and encouragement that it’s okay to grieve in your own way and to eventually live a happy and productive life.

Group Norms

Rights and expectations for this group are as follows: 1) Respect other members and their opinions, beliefs, and experiences. This group does not promote nor work against a religious belief. People of all faiths, or no faith, are welcome., 2) Please do not talk over one another and limit your discussion or questions to a reasonable time period so others may have a chance to share., 3) You are not required to talk but you are encouraged to do so., 4) Please maintain a certain amount of confidentiality when you leave the group, to exclude members names when talking to non-members about grief group.

Group Leader

The main qualification for an effective group leader in this type of group, is someone who has experienced the loss of a child, is further down the road in their grief journey and understands the process. The group leaders are always available to take phone calls around the clock. There may be others in the group who are further along as well, and can volunteer to take calls for the GGPWLC hotline.

As the leader of a grief group, it is important to understand that even though certain counseling theories could be used to help the members, they benefit the most by following the norms and by being a good listener. We allow time to listen and empathize as each member expresses their grief. A good leader will know when to suggest outside sources for an individual to get deeper counseling and will build a network of professionals to obtain advice on occasion.

Outline for Six Group Sessions

Each session will begin with a reminder of the norms and rounds. The members will say their name and then their child’s name, when the child died, and as an option, how the child died.

To someone who has never lost a child this round might seem unnecessary, however, it is why the members have come. They want and need to talk about their child. The rounds are important especially when there are new members. Then we move on to the topics of the meeting. Members may also submit topics on a note card that they would like to discuss in future meetings.

Session 1

Purpose: Establish norms, introduction rounds, and discuss what the topics will be for future meetings. Ask all members to bring a picture of their child for our memory book which will be displayed in group every meeting.

Theme: You are not alone.

Activity: Getting to know where each member is in the grief process. A handout will be given to each member on the next meeting topic, the five stages of grief.  (The Five Stages of Grief, 2014) They are asked to read the brochure and be ready to share, if willing, ways they have experienced one of the stages and what helped them through that stage.

Session 2

Purpose: Discussion on the stages of grief. Covering the stages of grief cannot be completed in one session. We will start in session 2 and finish in session 3. The five stages are: Denial, Anger, Bargaining, Depression, and Acceptance. It is important to have members identify which stage or stages they might be experiencing. It helps to know that all stages are normal and they can look different from one person to another.

Theme: Grief is a journey

Activity:  Rounds begin as the members are invited to share their experience with denial.

Stage 1 – Denial is short lived albeit necessary to identify. It is a defense mechanism that buffers the immediate shock. I personally refer to it as the protection of one’s heart. Without denial, I wonder if one could even get through the first few days after the death of a child. Stage 2 – Anger is an important stage and should be discussed in depth. What does it look like for you? Can you identify when one of your actions came from anger? Anger after the death of a child can be easily displaced. Looking at the reality of any situation can help a member be more aware of their anger and how anger can affect their other relationships.

Session 3

Purpose: Finish discussion of the five stages of grief. Stages Three, Four, and Five are covered in this session.

Theme: You’re not going crazy. For grief, this is normal.

Activity: Rounds to discuss the last three stages of grief: bargaining, depression, and acceptance.  Bargaining is a reaction to feeling helpless and is often the need to regain control in your life. It is usually short lived. Depression is important to understand and identify. There are two types associated with mourning. There is the utter sadness of the situation that may come and go at any given time that I consider circumstantial. Then there is the more subtle and private depression that can last longer and require a doctor’s care, and possibly individual counseling. Acceptance is the last stage and it is the place we want to be. There is never a time frame on when a person will reach the acceptance stage. Some never do. Acceptance is not a period of happiness, but one of peace. Acceptance, in my opinion, simply means that we have allowed ourselves to feel our grief and have come to terms with our loss. We stress hope in all meetings. We can survive and we can be happy again.

Session 4

Purpose: Learning how to honor our child’s memory during the holidays.

Theme: How will I get through the holidays without them?

Activity: We will start group rounds using a handout titled “An Emotional Wish List” (Alexy, 1989). Our discussion will be geared toward how we will get through the holidays.

We will also do a written activity. Each member will be given a piece of paper with two sentences to complete in their own words. Sentence 1: I want to spend the holidays …….

Sentence 2: I will honor my child’s memory this holiday season by ……

This activity will help the member identify where they are emotionally and how they can make the memory of their child a part of their holiday season. One of our biggest fears as a bereaved parent is that others will forget or not speak of our child as if they never existed.

Session 5

Purpose: This meeting is to complete an activity that honors the memory of the child that died. The ceremony will be open to friends and family members.

Theme: Gone but not forgotten.

Activity: All members and their families to include surviving children, will meet at a local park for a candle lighting ceremony. Members are encouraged to bring a poem or a reading that reflects the importance of remembering our children. Candles are passed out after the readings. The candles are lit as each parent says the name of their child and the date of their death.  We have a moment of silence. I think this type of ceremony is important for the first couple of years after the loss, maybe more. A balloon ceremony can also be another way to remember and celebrate our children. After the ceremony refreshments are offered.

Session 6

Purpose: To help members understand their new normal.  How do we know we are making progress on our journey?  We will display and continue to add to the group’s memory book.

Theme: Getting through the first years.

Activity: Rounds and discuss topics. What is the member’s new normal? We can never go back to the time before our child died. Our life is different now but not over. Members are in different emotional places and are starting to learn how to be there for each other. They can see that time helps, little by little, and yet you never get over the loss. Members can talk about how their life is different. Maybe they don’t cry as often as they once did. They have learned that by helping others we have made greater strides in our own grief journey. In group, helping means to be a good listener and providing educational information that will help members understand the process.

Conclusion

       Grief Group – Parents Who Lost Children is an ongoing group. The group will have long term members because they want to be there to help other newly bereaved parents. There will also be parents who will come for short periods of time and feel they have enough information to move forward. Some will come and find that they just can’t deal with a group that reminds them their child is dead. Grief is hard work and it lasts a lifetime. It does get easier after a while, but it never goes away. We can get to the acceptance stage and hopefully realize that our lives are as important as the child who went before us. We can learn to live our lives to the fullest while we hold on to the memory of our children.

 

References

The 5 Stages of Grief. (2014,November 8) Retrieved from    http://psychcentral.com/lib/the-5-stages-of-loss-and-grief

Benefit of Grief Groups. (2010, February 18) Retrieved from http://www.hellogrief.org/benefits-of-grief-support-groups

Alexy, W. (1989) In “Tis The Season To Be Jolly” (pp. 1-2) Retrieved from http://www.nmsuicideprevention.org>2009/12

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Beth Beethe

DAAC 2354: DYNAMICS OF GROUP COUNSELING
Human Services student Beth Beethe designs an original therapeutic support group for chronic pain sufferers based on her experiences and work with clients. She researched newer forms of non-narcotic treatment approaches, designed to help individuals reduce their dependence on addictive medications, and provides a logical rationale for their use. Group sessions are methodically structured and supported with clearly defined terminology and objectives. Throughout the manuscript, there are connections between her ideas, rationale, and research-based treatment approaches.

– Cynthia Trumbo

Non-Narcotic Support Group for Chronic Pain Patients

This support/educational group focuses on helping patients that are using narcotics to reduce the amount of chronic pain they deal with by teaching new ways to manage pain without narcotics.   An estimated 116 million adults experience chronic pain (James, 2011).  Respondents of a National Institute of Health Statistics survey indicated that low back pain was the most common (27%), followed by severe headache or migraine pain (15%), neck pain (15%) and facial ache or pain (4%)”  (Medicine, 2006).  All the members are inpatients of varying ages in a Pain and Recovery Center, dealing with chronic pain stemming from different types of injuries or illnesses.  Support/educational groups “enable members to learn that other people struggle with the same problems, feel similar emotions, and think similar thoughts” (Jacobs, Masson, Harvell, & Schimmel, 2014, p.15).  The goal is to teach members to learn to think differently, to lower the amount of pain being felt and to find different ways to handle chronic pain.  This is accomplished by first removing the dependence on narcotics that were no longer aiding in or providing pain management.   Second, teaching new methods of controlling pain.  Third, to create a support/educational group where the patients can open up about their fears of detoxing and living without the narcotic/controlled substances.  And lastly the patients will learn new ways to schedule their days instead of around their pain, through their pain.

Group Methodology

The duration of these 90 minute sessions will be four weeks, twice a week, for a support/educational group for patients in a residential treatment center for managing chronic pain without the use of narcotics.  The group caters to all adult patients of the facility, both male and female.  Each patient is given confidentiality information upon admittance.

Outline for Eight Group Session:

The leader discusses with the members that one of the reasons for confidentiality is to maintain a safe environment for the members to share and be able to have the expectation of privacy outside of the group itself.   The guidelines are formed on the first session of the support group and include but are not limited to no cross talk, no “rescuing” other members (offering sympathy or grabbing a tissue for them when they are emotional) to allow that member to truly feel the emotions at that time, one person will speak at a time, members should speak in “I” phrases only, respect the other members within the group, do not make comments that are intended to hurt or cause pain in another member, when giving constructive feedback do so in a kind manner, and participation is mandatory but the extent of that participation is defined by each member for themselves.  The Confidentiality statement and the guidelines that the group will use are called “stating the norms”.  In a round each member tells their name, the cause of their chronic pain, and on a scale of 1-10, with 1 being the lowest and 10 being the highest, identify what is their current pain level.  This is referred to as the “name your pain” round.

The “stating the norms” and the “name your pain round” are repeated at the onset of the sessions. The leader keeps the focus of the sessions on the subject of removing the narcotics and dealing with pain in a different manner to keep the group from wandering off topic into storytelling about how many pills they took or what medications they were on.

SESSION 1

Purpose:  To introduce the members to the concept of managing pain without the use of non-narcotic/controlled substances.  To establish the group’s overall purpose and what each member hopes to learn/gain from the group. To introduce the members to each other and begin building a therapeutic and safe environment for them to begin rebuilding their life.

Theme:  “Lower the Medication – Lower the Pain!”

Activities:  The leader begins the session with the “stating the norms” and “name your pain” round.  In this session, it is imperative that each member get to know the other members in the group so that in the future they will feel comfortable sharing personal feelings, beliefs and experiences.  There is a second activity to further engage the members with each other and help them get to know one another on a deeper level.  The leader will break the group into dyads.  Each dyad quickly discusses what each member wishes to get out of the group and any concerns they may have about being in the group.  Finally, the dyads regroup back into a circle. Each member introduces their partner’s and what they hope to gain by being in the group and any concerns they have shared.  This continues from dyad to dyad until everyone’s comments have been shared.  The leader facilitates a discussion about these concerns allowing everyone to participate as solutions to these concerns are reached.

SESSION 2

Purpose:  To introduce Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) and the Gate Control Theory (GCT) of pain management and have an open discussion on the merits of these theories.  “Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT) is based on the principle that one’s thoughts cause one’s feelings.” (Jacobs, et al, 2014, p. 15).

Theme:  “Retrain Your Brain ”

Activities:  The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and “stating the norms”.  To emphasize CBT the leader discusses how automatic thoughts tie into CBT and changing the way you feel or behave.  “Anyone can develop depression if he or she is living with chronic pain. Getting counseling can help you learn to cope better and help you avoid negative thoughts that make pain worse — so you have a healthier attitude. Asking for help is a sign of strength, not weakness” (Lava, 2015).  A good way to avoid negative thoughts is discussed and the leader hands out “homework” in the form of a paper with a column for ”Negative Thought” and a column “Replace Negative Thought”.  This activity helps members learn that thought processes can affect the way they think and that a negative thought will produce negative feelings as well as a positive thought will produce positive feelings.  At the end of the session the homework is to write down five negative thoughts that they believe about themselves and replace each negative with five positive thoughts that they believe about themselves and bring the paper back to the next session.

At this time, the leader moves on to discuss the Gate Control Theory (GCT) (Viatcheslav Wlassoff, 2014) for the rest of the time allowed.  The leader talks about the fact that chronic pain patients have the highest and lowest pain thresholds.  Using the GCT the leader discusses how the injured limb sends messages to the brain “telling” it that it is in pain.  The brain has grown accustomed to putting all pain signals in a chronic pain “bucket” and will do so with any pain that develops.  “The pain signal transmission can be influenced by emotions and thoughts. It is well known that people do not feel a chronic pain or, to be more appropriate, the pain does not disturb them when they concentrate on other activities that interest them.  Whereas, people who are anxious or depressed feel intense pain and find it difficult to cope with it. This is because the brain sends messages through descending fibers that stop, reduce or amplify the transmission of pain signals through the “gate”, depending on the thoughts and emotions of a person” (Wlassoff, 2014).  If the member can stop the message from getting to the brain, as if a gate is closed in their “throat” (brain stem) stopping the signal, and then think the pain through before deciding if it is chronic pain or not, then the patient can react differently to the current pain (Wlassoff, 2014).

Included in this discussion is the use of biofeedback.  Using biofeedback training with a biofeedback handheld machine to show the body’s reaction to relaxation techniques used in biofeedback in “real time”.  The leader helps the members learn and test their own abilities of biofeedback.  This also shows the members how much their thoughts can control their body. For members, the biofeedback machine acts as a kind of sixth sense which allows them to “see” or “hear” activity inside their bodies.

SESSION THREE

Purpose:  To go over the homework activity from the previous session and discuss how it made the members feel when they replaced the negative self talk with positive.  Discuss with the members if they can see how thinking about a pain (referencing the previous session GCT) can help them handle the pain in a manner more realistic when dealing with a “lower” pain such as stubbing their toe or hitting their elbow on a hard surface.  Once established that not all pain is chronic and not all pain requires a pill, the leader then directs the discussion towards living a fuller life by paying attention to the actual cause of a pain and handling each pain differently.

Theme:  “Live Life”

Activity:  The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and “stating the norms”.  The leader opens the floor to allow the members to tell about their negative and positive thought process and if anyone feels better about themselves after doing the assignment.  This will open up the subject of “thinking causes feeling” and give the leader an opening to discuss pain and the GCT in further detail.  The leader allows for some continued discussion and directs the group towards self-care and things that the members can do encouraging members to also talk about things that are hard for them to do and finding new ways to attack those issues in a positive way.

SESSION FOUR

Purpose:  Alternative ways to deal with painThe leader discusses how to free the mind and focus on relaxation through meditation.

Theme:  “Change Your Focus”

Activity:  The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and “stating the norms”.   The leader discusses the benefits of meditation.  Each member is given a mat to lay down on and a pillow.  The leader directs the members to think about a peaceful quiet place that they feel comfortable and free of pain.  The leader lowers the lights and starts quiet peaceful music while directing the members to feel the peace inside their minds and focus on that peace.  The leader directs the meditation for 70 minutes.  The leader slowly ends meditation and quietly discusses with the members, through the end of the session, what their pain level is after the meditation. This shows the members how focusing away from their bodies can actually help to lower their pain level.

SESSION FIVE

Purpose:  To introduce members to another alternative way to deal with pain.  The leader, along with a Yoga instructor, helps the members to stretch their muscles, build their core strength and learn to utilize their own breathing to help focus on something other than their own pain through yoga.

Theme:  “Kintsukuroi”

Activity:  The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and  “stating the norms”.   The leader brings up and discusses the meaning of a common Yoga term kintsukuroi”Kintsugi (金継ぎ?) (Japanesegolden joinery) or Kintsukuroi (金繕い?) (Japanese: golden repair) that is the Japanese art of repairing broken pottery with lacquer dusted or mixed with powdered gold, silver or platinum….  As a philosophy it treats breakage and repair as part of the history of an object, rather than something to disguise…. Not only is there no attempt to hide the damage, but the repair is literally illuminated…  (Kintsugi, 2015).  The belief is that something that has been broken and then repaired, using precious elements such as gold or silver, has more value than the original thing.

Before turning the class over to the Yoga instructor, the leader reminds the group that there is no competition in Yoga and to not push themselves farther than their bodies allow.  The rest of the session is Yoga.

SESSION SIX

Purpose:  To educate the group about the importance of eating healthy.

Theme:  “You Are What You Eat!”

Activity:  The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and “stating the norms”.  The group leaves the normal assigned room for group to a greenhouse on the facility grounds.  The leader introduces the groundskeeper/greenhouse manager and turns the group over to him/her for discussion on downfalls of bad nutrition.  After being in the greenhouse for about 30 minutes the group will return to the room and the leader discusses healthy foods that can also reduce pain.  When talking about medications to aid in pain relief “there is an alternative, and it’s right in your kitchen. Certain foods ease aches by fighting inflammation, blocking pain signals, and even healing underlying disease.  Almost always, if we find pharmaceuticals doing the trick, we’ll find a plant doing the same trick—and doing it more safely,” says botanist James A. Duke, PhD, author of The Green Pharmacy Guide to Healing Foods (The Green Pharmacy, 2015).  No fruit, vegetable, or herb by itself can alleviate your pain if you don’t change the pattern of your diet to reduce processed food and increase whole foods” (Neithercott, 2014).

SESSION SEVEN

Purpose:  To discuss addiction as a disease and familiarize the members with support groups that are available through several outside facilities such as Church groups and 12 step programs.

Theme:  “Addiction: Disease or Moral Choice?”

Activity:  The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and “stating the norms”.  After a 30 minute discussion about addiction and how it is a disease, the group is directed to a 12 step AA meeting that is held on the premises for the duration of the group.   

SESSION 8

Purpose:  To say goodbye to the graduating members and discuss IOP and Aftercare.

Theme:  “Critical Continuum Care”

Activity:   The leader initiates the “name your pain round” and “stating the norms”.  The leader gives an explanation of Intensive Out Patient (IOP) and Aftercare (AC).  After pointing out the members that are leaving the group for IOP or AC, the leader opens a discussion of relapse prevention.  The leader directs the group to discuss what techniques they learned that helped them relieve their pain. The group is prompted by the leader to discuss what each exiting member’s current pain level is and where it was when they first came into the group.  This discussion is group run unless the leader needs to redirect the focus of the group to the exiting members.

STRATEGIES TO EVALUATE THE GROUP

            “The final 10-15 minutes of the eighth session consists of a group evaluation; the members fill out a survey detailing their experiences (See appendix).

 CONCLUSION

This support/educational group is designed for adults in chronic pain that have been medicated or overmedicated by their pain management doctors.  The purpose of this program is to detox the patients of the controlled substances and to educate them with new ways of dealing with pain management.  With a focus on CBT, meditation, Yoga, and Nutrition and other alternative ways, each session is designed to give the patients a new way of looking at pain.  By educating the patients, they will find good ways to refocus their mind and deal with pain without the need to turn to narcotics/controlled substances.  It is imperative for the patients to be their own advocate and to question the methods that have been being used for the past decades to restore each person with a renewed, higher quality of life.

APPENDIX

Survey from Session 8          

Non Narcotic Pain Management Group Survey

 Rate on a scale of 1 to 10 the effectiveness of this group (1 being the weakest, 10            being the best).   1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

Rate on a scale of 1 to 10 the effectiveness of this leader (1 being the weakest, 10  being the best).  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

  1. Rate on a scale of 1 to 10 how helpful this group has been (1 being the weakest, 10   being the best).  1   2   3   4   5   6   7   8   9   10

Use the following space to share any personal thoughts regarding this group or the leader. ___________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________________ (Preece, (Preece, 2015)

References

Jacobs, E.E., Masson, R.L., Harvell, R.L. & Schimmel, R.J. (2014). Group Counseling Strategies and Skills. Belmont, California: Brooks/Cole.

James, S. D. (2011, June 29). ABC News. Retrieved from Chronic Pain: http://abcnews.go.com/US/chronic-pain-americans-live-iom-report/story?id=13950802

Kintsugi. (2015, October 18). Retrieved from Wikepedia: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Kintsugi

Medicine, A. A. (2006, January 1). The Voice of Pain. Retrieved from American Acxademy of Pain Medicine: http://www.painmed.org/PatientCenter/Facts_on_Pain.aspx#refer

Neil Lava, M. (2015, February 22). 11 Tips for Living With Chronic Pain. Retrieved from Web MD: http://www.webmd.com/pain-management/guide/11-tips-for-living-with-chronic-pain

Neithercott, T. (2014, June 5). 10 Healthy Foods That Fight Pain Naturally. Retrieved from Health: http://www.prevention.com/health/health-concerns/10-healing-foods-fight-pain

Preece, H. (2015, summer/fall). Smoking Cessation Group. Lone Star College – Montgomery Journal of Student Writing Volume XI. Fall 2015, p. 109.

The Green Pharmacy. (2015). Retrieved from Good Reads: http://www.goodreads.com/book/show/245977.The_Green_Pharmacy

Viatcheslav Wlassoff, P. (2014, June 23). Gate Control Theory and Pain Management. Retrieved from BrainBlogger/Neuroscience and Neurology: http://brainblogger.com/2014/06/23/gate-control-theory-and-pain-management/

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Mike Reed

HISTORY 2312:WESTERN CIVILIZATION FROM 1648

Mikee wrote this paper as part of a “Reacting to the Past” class game. The setting was the French Revolution, and Mike was a member of the Jacobin faction. The Jacobins needed to convince the other factions in the room to toss out the constitution of 1791 and start fresh. The paper is both persuasive and analytical, with a consistent use of the primary sources. Mike had to deliver this paper in speech form in front of the class as well as submit this more formally written version. This paper represents the best of the papers in the game, covering both his own argument and anticipating the arguments of the other factions. It demonstrates Mike’s ability to analyze and use primary sources, formulate an argument based on those sources, and write with a critical eye to his argument’s reception by opposing factions.

– Amy Curry

 The Jacobins
Our work is not yet finished!

Fellow countrymen we stand ready to take our great country back from the talons of an unworthy King. The Catholic Church must continue to be restrained and the nobility must pay their fair share of taxes to help support the country.  We also have critical matters of state to continue discussing, such as the abolition of the slave trade and proper running of the military. I would like to let you, my fellow citizens, know a little more about me as there are various things that many of you are probably unaware. I am from the south of France I grew up in Montaubaun, near Toulouse. I am the son of a fuller and my father, like many of my relatives, has worked his way up from humble beginnings to provide a comfortable life for me. We have earned our money not through trickery or at the expense of others, but through fair and honest business. I was originally schooled by the Jesuits at Marseille and learned much from them, but my father and I also learned of the cruelty and repressive nature of the Catholic order. Man should be free to worship his god in his own way. For this reason, my father and I decided I should move on to Bordeaux and study Navigation.

In my previous correspondence with you, I touched on several subjects. I would like to revisit the Catholic church. We, the National Assembly, have passed and ratified the Obligatory Oath.  We have men around this country who are currently refusing to take the oath and we must act immediately. “If the State is a moral person whose life is in the union of its members, and if the most important of its cares is the care for its own preservation, it must have a universal and compelling force, in order to move and dispose each part as may be most advantageous to the whole. As nature gives each man absolute power over all his members, the social compact gives the body politic absolute power over all its members also; and it is this power which, under the direction of the general will, bears, as I have said, the name of Sovereignty. ”(Rousseau Book 2,4) We can no longer tolerate the interference of Rome in the day to day affairs of France.

The Pope has proclaimed “that each and every cardinal, archbishop, bishop, abbot, vicar, canon, parish priest, curate and member of the clergy, whether secular or regular, who has purely and simply taken the Civil Oath as ordered by the National Assembly is suspended from the exercise of his office and will act irregularly if he exercises his office, unless he abjures his oath within forty days from this date. For the oath is the poisoned source and origin of all errors And the chief cause of the sorrow of the French Catholic church. (Pious 20) Many of you may be unaware that many years ago I studied and was ordained as a Calvinist minister while in Switzerland. Religious toleration and acceptance of various forms of worship are a critical component of the great republic we are attempting to create. The Pope and his council wish to force out all other forms of religion. The position we have taken is not one that speaks of ejecting the Catholic faithful from France. We encourage and support our catholic brothers, for we worship the same God just differently.

The Pope also goes on to state “Listen carefully to the message of your lawful pastors who are still living, and who will be put in charge of you later, according to the canons. Finally, in one word, stay close to Us. For no one can be in the Church of Christ without being in unity with its visible head and founded on the See of Peter (Pious 32). This interpretation is a nothing more than his attempt to centralize his own power and wealth.  He boldly tells our people that the church one day will regain control and France will again heel at the foot of the Pope. Is the Pope planning an invasion of France, because the people of France have spoken and we wish to be governed by the people not some monarch or papal figurehead with their own questionable agenda? Furthermore the Pope goes on to contradict the very words of Christ who proclaims  “For God so loved the world, that he gave his only begotten Son, that whosoever believeth in him should not perish, but have everlasting life.”(John 3:16) Eternal salvation flows through the body of Christ, not the church in Rome.

Another topic that we must continue to work on is the issue of slavery in the Caribbean. Rousseau states that“…in respect of riches, no citizen shall ever be wealthy enough to buy another, and none poor enough to be forced to sell himself”(Rousseau Book 2,26 ). The events of February 26, 1791, have stained our country’s moral fiber. The brutal and vicious execution of Vicente Oge,  a freed and well educated black man, at the hands of the General Blanchelande is a crime that must be brought before the courts! How can we as citizens and believers in the works of Rousseau allow such blatant disregard for the inviolable rights of men? “Men are born free and remain free and equal in rights, social distinctions may be founded only upon the general good”(de Lafayette, Jefferson, Mirabeau, 1). How can we stray from the laws we have already passed so early in this process? There are many among us who state the freeing of the slaves will be a logistical and administrative nightmare, as it may well be. Europe and the rest of the world will surely mock our feeble attempt to create a country if we hypocritically ignore section one of the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.

At this critical juncture, our country sits in chaos. We have foreign invaders that have crossed into our lands and we must start to exert control of the military at once!  The Marquis de Lafayette is a man with a very questionable set of loyalties. After his repeated use of the  National Guard to suppress the citizens of Paris, we must remove this man from power or risk losing the faith of the very people we are trying show a better way of life. Members of the National Assembly, as we embark on this mission of creating a more economically free and diverse nation, one where all men have a chance to earn a living raise a family and to enjoy the fruits of their labor, it would be foolish to allow someone from the aristocracy with questionable loyalty to oversee our National Guard. I would like to nominate my good friend Maximilian Robespierre for the new commander of the national guard.  Robespierre brings with him a flawless resume of knowledge and experience. This man has been an outspoken leader and advocate for the poor and he also supports the abolition of slavery. His well-known nickname of “The Incorruptible” tells all we need to know. This man will bridge the divide Lafayette has created. I think it would be prudent at this time to name the Marquis de Lafayette Ambassador to the newly formed United States of America. In this capacity he might very well be in a position to gather assistance, given all that France and he did for this new country.

And lastly, women of France, I beseech you to give up these foolish ambitions you have of joining the army or taking part in the complicated game that is politics. Our country has endured years of war and unfortunately may endure more years in the very near future. We need you at home raising the next generation of French citizens. We need you to be there and run the households so that our men may continue the critical role of reshaping and rearming our great Republic! For clarity on this topic I would have you consider this passage from the Bible: “For God is not the author of confusion, but of peace, as in all churches of the saints. Let your women keep silence in the churches: for it is not permitted unto them to speak; but they are commanded to be under obedience as also saith the law. And if they will learn anything, let them ask their husbands at home: for it is a shame for women to speak in the church” (I Corinthians 14:33-35).

Citizens of France I ask again that you all spread the word and that the Jacobin message is the only clear path to formation of a truly great republic. We have on both sides of us people that wish to pull us only part way to a new form of governance. Their half measures are nothing than vain attempts to cling to the power and wealth that has been acquired through ill-gotten gains or devious ways. We must completely strip away our former method of governance and start anew.

 

Works Cited

De Lafayette, Marquis, Thomas Jefferson, and Honore Mirabeau. “Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen.” N.p., n.d. Web. 2 Mar. 2016.

Jean-Jacques Rouseau. “Social Contract Book 3.” SpringerReference (n.d.): n. pag. Web. 2 Mar. 2016.

“John 3:16.” King James Bible. London: Public Domain, 1611. N. pag. Print.

Rosseau, Jean Jacque. “Social Contract Book 2.” SpringerReference (n.d.): n. pag. Early Modern Texts. Dec. 2010. Web. Feb. 2016.

VI, Pious. “Charitas: On the Civil Oath in France.” 1981. The Papal Encyclopedias. Vol. 1. N.p.: Mcgrath, 1981. N. pag. Print.

“1st Corinthians 14:33-35.” King James Bible. London: Public Domain, 1611. N. pag. Print.

Posted in Visual Communication 2016

Jeremy Martinez

GOVT 2306: Texas Government

Jeremy Martinez’s analysis of his internship with SWBC is a fine example of how to situate an applied experience within a scholarly literature. Drawing on ten scholarly resources, the review marries Jeremy’s first-hand under-standing of the use of social media in the insurance industry with the advice of academic studies. Noting the departure between the best practice stipulated by scholars and “real world” practices, Jeremy’s analysis is an excellent example of how to generate recommendations from a combination of primary evidence and secondary sourced research.

– Fiona Ross

Social Media and Business: An Intern’s Experience

Social media is a new dimension in the business world which has revolutionized the way companies go about doing business. The mortgage industry is no different. This past summer, I had the opportunity to work with SWBC, a financial company working with mortgage loans. I assisted Mr. Chris Planto, a loan officer, in growing both his Facebook and LinkedIn networks and helped Mrs. Tami Buron to grow the SWBC team and find quality candidates.

The use of social media as a tool for recruitment is still a new concept to employers. The importance of good staffing is stressed by Shannon Alter; “the outcomes and results your company has… begin with how and who you hire,” (43). In 2009, “46% of over 2600 hiring managers reported searching [Social Networking Sites] to learn about job candidates, an increase from 22% reported in 2008,” (Vaughn and Brown, 219). As an intern, I was assigned to screen potential candidates for new loan officers to bring in from other companies. I used sites such as Google and other social sites to find out as much information as possible.  Mrs. Buron would evaluate the information and decide whether or not to pursue the candidate.

In order to practice business in Texas, loan officers must have a special license. To obtain this license, they take several courses on laws and practices regulating the industry and register with a database. This database is open to the public. It includes candidate’s work addresses, phone numbers, and email addresses along with their career history, and any disciplinary actions taken against them. It was a good starting point, although to find more personal information, other sites were used. On LinkedIn, Mrs. Buron had a premium account which allowed her to access profiles anonymously, even when the owner has set their profile to private. The information found on the site was then used to recruit the individual. This is the aim of making a profile on a professional networking site like LinkedIn. With options to upload a resume and list particular skills that allow one’s contacts to verify them, the whole point of the profile is to market oneself to employers. However, one cannot help but feel uncomfortable by the use of the premium accounts. Mark Ferrer wrote on the use of social media for such matters, “in an era when privacy is a sensitive topic and the boundaries between work and personal lives sometimes get uncomfortably blurred,” (48).

I found this statement to be true when I ventured onto Facebook to find further information. Most of the candidates had set up business pages but when searching for them directly, no personal profiles could be found. These personal accounts are desired as information about their hobbies and residences can be beneficial. For example, to find one candidate’s account, I searched for a secretary who worked for the same company and shared his last name. She had no need for a business page and therefore using her name and company, I found her profile. From there, I verified that she was indeed the wife of the loan officer. Her profile included a link to his profile through tags in her pictures. Through their personal profiles, we were able to find in depth information about the candidates. A key piece of information found concerned their residence and their office was in a city an hour and a half away. We also learned that they were volunteers at the local animal shelter in Montgomery County. This was gold to Mrs. Buron, as SWBC was also partnered with the same animal shelter. This information was valuable in persuading this particular loan officer to leave their current company and come to us.  The practice of researching candidates online seems to be a common practice in the business world as, “37% of all employers are using… [Facebook and LinkedIn] …to research job candidates,” (Drobocky 17). These sites are also used to recruit passive job-seekers, who work for other companies yet, “ use the websites to indicate that they are interested in and available for certain job positions and occupations,” (Davison, Maraist, Bing, 155). Companies benefit as, “employers who used social media reported a 49 percent improvement over candidates sourced through traditional channels,” (Carter 28). Employees benefit as well as, in 2012, “15% [of job-seekers] say they successfully secured a new job opportunity that originated via a social media site,” (Drobocky 16).

SWBC is not the only company recruiting online. In order to help Mr. Planto, he had given me access to his LinkedIn. Having trouble with the site, I asked Mrs. Buron for some help. She noticed that Mr. Planto had a large amount of unread messages. She clicked to view the messages and discovered other companies were trying to lure Mr. Planto with promises of promotions and better working environments. He had over 90 connection requests from recruiters. Mrs. Buron then opened every message from a recruiter. After reading the message she would delete it. Sharing many of its practices with other companies, SWBC is not the only company to do this. Given the opportunity, other companies would do the same to retain their employees.

The other aspect of social media with which I worked was Mr. Planto’s social media marketing. Social media marketing is very new to the industry and more research is being done to discover what works. “Marketing has experienced a very rapid development since the advent of the Internet in the way it communicates, in its communication media, and in its very definition,” (Erragcha, Romdhane, 8). The general approach for companies like SWBC is to, “use a ‘top-down’ approach where they ‘build up a business case, get it signed off by management, outsource the actual work to agencies, plan their posts weeks ahead, and get them approved by legal, et cetera’,” (Katona, Sarvary, 147). Prior to my arrival, Mr. Planto had no real social media presence. The previous month he had posted two posts to his Facebook business page from hearsay.com. Hearsay.com is the company used by SWBC to handle social media. The corporate offices will create various posts for social media for SWBC patrons and the site will allow the patrons to pick and choose which posts they like. The site also allows for automatic posting. Facebook will then track the number of people who saw the post and the number of likes, shares, clicks and comments it receives. This data is then compared to data generated from the previous week and the progress can be tracked and monitored. Over the course of two years, Mr. Planto’s page had generated a total of 108 likes. The posts from the month prior to my working on his page had reached a total of eight people and had generated no interactions. To revive the page, I set up his Hearsay account and subscribed his page to every campaign available. There was to be a new post on his page every two days for the next few months.  Initially these posts looked promising as early posts generated two new likes to the page and more likes to posts as well as clicks. But after the first week of this, the buzz died. The posts still reached their audience, an average of roughly 12 people per post, but people seemed bored with a mortgage company spamming their Newsfeed.

According to research, SWBC is not in the right place regarding social media. There are large numbers of people on Facebook as, “Facebook users spend more than a fourth of their time on the site consuming and interacting with the Facebook Newsfeed; this activity represents 4 percent of all time spent online in the United States” (Bruich et. al. 40). It is not that posts fail to reach consumers. Consumers are just not interested in clicking on the posted links. The uniqueness of the social media medium in marketing is that the target audience has the opportunity to interact with what is presented to them. The company can receive direct feedback from their marketing campaigns. In order for this to happen, solicitors must take, “the time to think about the desired audience and the type of content that is important to its needs,” (Schlinke, Crain 86). This suggests SWBC is not meeting the needs of its customers with bland posts telling the audience to turn their clocks back on daylights savings time and how to properly trim hedges.

One company which properly utilized social media was the Maersk shipping company. The company initially used the same top down approach as SWBC but after discovering their archive of photos from Maersk vessels of scenery from around the world, they began to share it with their followers. The public loved it. These photos encouraged followers to take their own pictures of the ships and share them with the page. They would also post pictures of their administrative team to give the company a face. As the company grew, they expanded their social media presence onto other sites, such as LinkedIn, Instagram, and Twitter. They discovered that on each site, the audience was different and therefore responded in varied ways to diverse content. The community within LinkedIn was composed largely of professionals within the industry. Therefore, their community responded more to news and events relating to the industry. The Instagram community, however, was composed of fans of the company who responded, similar to the Facebook community, to pictures of vessels and scenic views.

This method should be implemented with SWBC’s marketing scheme. SWBC is not engaging its target audience and should invest in new content for their social media posts. Perhaps they could photograph the elaborate architecture built into some of the homes which have mortgages, or create a weekly update of things happening within the office so as to personify the company and have followers feel as if they are reading a friend’s post as opposed to being solicited.

Overall, the opportunity to work with SWBC mortgage was an eye opening, raw experience as to how business operates in the real world. It was interesting to see how the company used all the resources available to them, social media in particular. Its implementation into the realm of Human Resources was a concept that I knew existed, but not to such an extent. With the boundaries of social media yet to be defined, it is truly amazing the lengths at which a company will go to meet their ends. To have the opportunity to see all that goes into creating and posting marketing material on social media was rewarding to say the least.

 

Works Cited

Alter, Shannon. “Recruitment & Staffing.”  Journal Of Property Management  80.3 (2015): 42-47.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015

Brown, Victoria R.1,2, victoriarbrown@gmail.com, and E. Daly1 Vaughn. “The Writing On The (Facebook) Wall: The Use Of Social Networking Sites In Hiring Decisions.”  Journal Of Business & Psychology  26.2 (2011): 219-225.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Carter, Tara1, TCarter@luxeapartmentlife.com. “Hire Right The First Time.”  Journal Of Property Management  80.3 (2015): 26-29.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Davison, H. Kristl1, kdavison@bus.olemiss.edu, Catherine2, cmaraist@valtera.com Maraist, and Mark N.1, mbing@bus.olemiss.edu Bing. “Friend Or Foe? The Promise And Pitfalls Of Using Social Networking Sites For HR Decisions.”  Journal Of Business & Psychology  26.2 (2011): 153-159.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Drobock, Kristina1, kristina_drobocky@kellyfinance.com. “Is Social Media A Friend Or A Foe?.”  Strategic Finance  95.11 (2013): 16-18.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Erragcha, Nozha1, erragcha@yahoo.fr, and Rabiaa2, rabiaa.romdhane@yahoo.com Romdhane. “Social Networks As Marketing Tools.”  Journal Of Internet Banking & Commerce  19.1 (2014): 1-12.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Feffer, Mark. “New Connections.”  HR Magazine  60.3 (2015): 46-52.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Katona, Zsolt1, and Miklos2 Sarvary. “Maersk Line: B2B Social Media–“It’s Communication, Not Marketing.”  California Management Review  56.3 (2014): 142-156.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Lipsman, Andrew1, alipsman@comscore.com, et al. “The Power Of “Like”: How Brands Reach (And Influence) Fans Through Social-Media Marketing.”  Journal Of Advertising Research  52.1 (2012): 40-52.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Schlinke, Jennette1, jschlinke@nfp.com, and Stephanie, scrain1022@gmail.com Crain. “Social Media From An Integrated Marketing And Compliance Perspective.”  Journal Of Financial Service Professionals  67.2 (2013): 85-92.  Business Abstracts with Full Text (H.W. Wilson). Web. 14 Aug. 2015.

Posted in Visual Communication 2016